Developmental theories and how they relate to life's stages. Examples of life stages or phases may include marriage, parenthood, career, a return to school, empty nest, grand parenting. Piaget also defines the effect cognitive development has on each stage.
Development theory, cluster of research and theories on economic and political development. The emergence of development theory The use of the term development to refer to national economic growth emerged in the United States beginning in the s and in association with a key American foreign policy concern: Motivated by this concern, the United States enlisted its social scientists to study and devise ways of promoting capitalist economic development and political stability in what was termed the developing world.
Development theory refers to the research and writing that resulted from this effort. There are different conceptions of development and, consequently, disparate approaches to the subject.
However, all approaches are concerned with the relationship between development and governance. Development is usually seen as crucially determined by structures of governance; governance is interpreted through and shaped by the goal of development.
Most development theory equates development with national economic growth and sees the state as its primary agent; consequently, one of its central concerns is to understand and explain the role of the state in development and the nature of government-market relations.
Development theory has changed over time with changes in ideology and the international environmentand, as it changes, so do its conceptions of development and governance and how they are related.
Changing conceptions of governance and its relation to development can be traced through the major perspectives on development that have emerged since World War IIas represented by theories of modernization and growth, dependency and world systems theories, the resurgence of neoclassical theory, and an array of newer critical perspectives.
Theories Developmental theories and how they relate modernization and growth Development involves innumerable variables, including economic, social, political, gender, cultural, religious, and environmental factors. But though development theory integrates concepts and perspectives from a range of disciplinesit was highly influenced by economic thought from the start.
Early theoretical models of development equated development with economic growth and industrialization, and theorists saw countries that had not yet achieved these as being at an earlier or lower stage of development relative to Europe and North America. The most influential proponent of this view was the American economic historian Walt W.
His book, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifestoelaborated a linear-stages-of-growth model that defined development as a sequence of stages through which all societies must pass. This conception of the nature and process of development became the basic blueprint for modernization theory.
Modernization theory emerged following World War II to address the issue of how to shape the economies of states emerging from European colonization.
Modernization was, thus, conceived of as the relations of production and standards of living characteristic of western Europe and the United States. Theorists emphasized increased savings and investment as the key to development and argued that international trade in products particularly suited to national factor endowments would enable more efficient resource allocation and greater earnings, and these could be translated into savings and then used to promote development.
Theorists envisioned that—by disseminating technology, knowledge, managerial skills, and entrepreneurship; encouraging capital inflow; stimulating competition; and increasing productivity—foreign trade, together with foreign investment and aid, would be the engine of growth for developing countries.
Dependency and world systems theories Modernization theory claimed that once developing societies came into contact with western European and North American societies, they would be impelled toward modernization and, eventually, would achieve the economic, political, and social features characteristic of the nations of western Europe and the United States.
However, by the s it was apparent that the Third World was not passing through a stage of underdevelopment, as envisioned by modernization theory, but remaining underdeveloped. Thus, a counterclaim was advanced—that developing countries today are structurally different from the advanced countries and so will have to develop along different lines.
These structures created a dynamic that was continuing to impoverish former colonies and to thwart their modernization. According to ECLA, the international division of labour created by colonization had separated the international economy into a centre, consisting of the industrialized countries, and a peripherywhich included all the rest of the countries around the world outside of the socialist camp.
Because the prices of manufactured goods bought by the periphery were rising faster than those of raw materials, cash crops, and foodstuffs sold by the periphery to the centre, international trade ensured the persistence of an unbalanced process of development.
Thus, in contrast to modernization theory, which emphasized the benefits of free tradeforeign investment, and foreign aidthese theorists argued that free trade and international market relations occur in a framework of uneven relations between developed and underdeveloped countries and work to reinforce and reproduce these relations.
This perspective formed the basis of what came to be known as dependency theory. Dependency theory rejects the limited national focus of modernization theory and emphasizes the importance of understanding the complexity of imperialism and its role in shaping postcolonial states.
Its main tenet is that the periphery of the international economy is being economically exploited drained by the centre. Once this reshaping was accomplished, market forces worked to perpetuate the relationship of dominance and exploitation between centre and periphery.
This theoretical enterprise became known as world systems theory. It typically treats the entire world, at least since the 16th century, as a single capitalist world economy based on an international division of labour among a core that developed originally in northwestern Europe England, France, Hollanda periphery, and a semiperiphery consisting of core regions in decline e.
The division of labour among these regions determined their relationship to each other as well as their type of labour conditions and political system.Developmental Theories as They Relate to Chronic Conditions Developmental Theories as They Relate to Chronic Conditions.
Prior to completing this discussion, read the Bronfenbrenner Ecological theory in Chapter 1 of our textbook, the Schneiderman () article, “Psychosocial, Behavioral, and Biological Aspects of Chronic Diseases,” the Kondrat () article “Person In Environment.
Human Growth and Development Theories. Let's consider the following scenario: Three-year-old Timmy has started making his own breakfast of cereal each morning.
I am spending these two weeks co-teaching the Summer Institute of Civic Studies. We will cover 18 separate topics, and I will blog about roughly half of them. Yesterday afternoon’s discussion focused on children and youth, civic education, and human development, more generally.
We had assigned the. Prior to completing this discussion, read the Bronfenbrenner Ecological theory in Chapter 1 of our textbook, the Schneiderman () article, “Psychosocial, Behavioral, and Biological Aspects of Chronic Diseases,” the Kondrat () article “Person In Environment” and review the Instructor Guidance.
Developmental theories differ on two basic issues which are whether children are active or passive in their development or whether development is continuous or occur in stages.
Although there are five theoretical perspectives of child development, this paper will expound on three of the perspectives; contextual, cognitive, and psychoanalytic, from different viewpoints.
Development theory has changed over time with changes in ideology and the international environment, and, as it changes, so do its conceptions of development and governance and how they are related.